Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka`u Calendar News Briefs Thursday, Sept. 1, 2016

An unusual August into September snow blankets Mauna Loa this morning after the eye of Tropical Storm Madeline
passes to the south of Ka`u. NPS Photo by S. Geiger
“WE PRETTY MUCH DODGED a bullet,” Ka`u’s state Sen. Russell Ruderman told ABC News during a televised phone interview on Hurricane Madeline that weakened to a tropical storm before its eye passed south of Ka`u yesterday. Ruderman said people were well
Lester, a Category Three Hurricane at 5:30 p.m. today, 635 miles
east of South Point. Image from www.wunderground.com
prepared after going through Tropical Storm Darby. He also said he expects that the public will be prepared as Hurricane Lester approaches the state. “We all need to take hurricane warnings seriously,” he said. 
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A BIG ISLAND HURRICANE WATCH IS POSTED FOR LESTER, which intensified this morning and again this afternoon. At 5 p.m., Lester was 635 miles east of South Point, moving west at 14 mph, with sustained winds increasing to 125 mph, after traveling over warmer water. Lester is a Category Three Hurricane and is making a turn to the west-northwest.
    The Central Pacific Hurricane Center warned today, "It would take only asmall leftward shift in the track to directly and profoundly affect the state, and watches could be expanded to other islands later today or tonight. This possibility must be considered when making preparations over the next couple of days."
     The forecast brings Lester very close to the main Hawaiian islands Saturday and Sunday. Depending on the exact track that Lester takes, strong damaging winds and heavy rainfall are possible. Large and damaging surf is expected for east-facing shores as well. It is still too early to determine which island is at most risk from Lester. 
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A 3.7 EARTHQUAKE occurred this morning at 12.11 a.m., 4.7 miles northwest of Mauna Kea Summit at a depth of 15.3 miles. No damages reported.

ALL COUNTY AND STATE facilities, offices and services are restored, following the exit of Tropical Storm Madeline from Hawaiian waters. Solid waste transfer stations and landfills will open according to regular schedule.
      County parks will open and programs will resume on a case-by-case basis pending damage assessments that will occur this morning.
      UH Hilo and Hawai`i Community College have reopened.
      Public schools remain closed day.
      Private school families are encouraged to check with their schools for more information.
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Madeline was manageable. She knocked over this shrub and took down some
branches in yards and roadways in Pahala. Photo by Julia Neal
HAWAI`I VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK is open this morning, as Madeline passes to the south and is downgraded to a tropical storm. Some partial closures remain as Hurricane Lester nears.
      The following are open today or will open later this morning: Crater Rim Drive and Trail, Kilauea Visitor Center, Jaggar Museum and observation deck, Steam Vents, Nahuku (Thurston Lava Tube), Kilauea Iki and Devastation Trail.
      The following closures remain in effect :
      Chain of Craters Road, Mauna Loa Road beyond Kipukapuaulu, Namakanipaio Campground and Cabins, Kulanaokuaiki Campground, all backcountry sites and the coastal lava viewing area.
      Kahuku Unit, normally open on weekends, will be closed Saturday, with Sunday to be determined.
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KILAUEA VOLCANO’S “OLD FAITHFUL” is a thing of the past, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory reports in Volcano Watch.
      “In 1870, while exploring the American West, Nathaniel P. Langford encountered an ‘immense volume of clear, sparkling water projected into the air to a height of 125 feet,’ the article states. “He named this volcanic feature ‘Old Faithful.’ This magnificent geyser became the signature attraction of Yellowstone National Park and remains a popular visitor stop today.
      “But another volcanic feature with the same name has been largely forgotten.
      “The Island of Hawai`i once had its own ‘Old Faithful,’ composed of lava rather than boiling water, located in Halema`uma`u Crater at the summit of Kilauea. This lava fountain was first described in 1894 by Walter F. Frear, who wrote in the Volcano House Register that the fountain had played once or twice a minute in the same location since 1892. The name was apt, because this persistent lava fountain continued to splash to heights of 9 – 15 meters (30 – 50 feet) at the same location for decades.
This hand-tinted telephoto image of Kīlauea Volcano's "Old
Faithful" was taken by Frank A. Perret on July 23, 1911.
USGS-HVO photo archives
        “At times, the fountain was the central feature in a lava lake within Halema`uma`u Crater. At other times, lava in Halema`uma`u drained away, leaving nothing but rubble on the floor of the crater. But when the lava lake returned, so did Kilauea Volcano’s Old Faithful.
      “In 1911, Frank A. Perret, a volcanologist, and E.S. Shepherd, a gas chemist, began the first extended study of Kilauea for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They were determined to measure the temperature of an active lava lake and picked Old Faithful as their target.
      “The scientists erected a cable system that was stretched across Halemaʻumaʻu Crater so that instruments to measure temperature could be lowered into the lava fountain. After several failed attempts, they succeeded in obtaining the first lava temperature ever recorded, 1010 degrees Celsius (1850 degrees Fahrenheit). Their measurement is remarkably close to temperatures recorded with modern instruments.
      “Perret was fascinated by Old Faithful, and included detailed descriptions of the persistent fountain in his professional papers. The scientist also took many photographs of the lava fountain, such as the hand-tinted lantern slide that we recently found in the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory photo archives and included here.
      “When Thomas A. Jaggar replaced Perret as the permanent volcanologist at Kīlauea in 1912, he continued the study of Old Faithful as part of a broader effort to understand surface motion in the lava lake at Halema`uma`u. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory record books show many dozens of sketches of circulation patterns in the lava lake with ‘OF’ (Old Faithful) labeled as the centerpiece.
      “Most observers have concluded that, rather than being located over the source of a volcanic vent that feeds magma into the lava lake, features such as Old Faithful are the opposite—they are located where lava drains away. Jaggar suggested that the intermittent fountain lay over a ‘sink hole,’ meaning a site of lava draining or downwelling.
      “Today, scientists studying the behavior of the Overlook crater lava lake, which has been present within Halema`uma`u Crater since 2008, have also found that sites of persistent spattering are commonly sites of lava downwelling, not upwelling.
      “On June 5, 1916, the lava column at Halema`uma`u dropped and thousands of tons of rocky debris fell from the upper walls of the crater, covering Old Faithful. When lava returned to the crater, a new vent that opened at the Old Faithful location was described by Jaggar as ‘a cone with open top glowing and splashing at intervals.’ That cone later collapsed, and it soon became apparent that the basic geometry of the lava lake had changed in a significant way.
      “While scattered references to ‘Old Faithful’ can be found after 1916, the persistent lava fountain, which played at Kilauea Volcano for a quarter of a century, was a thing of the past.”
      See hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch.
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KA`U HIGH GIRLS VOLLEYBALL teams hosted Kealakehe Tuesday. Junior Varsity lost with scores of 19-25 and 12-25. Varsity also lost 18-25,19-25 and 18-25.
      Big Island Interscholastic Federation has cancelled all events for the rest of the week and weekend.
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KA`U PLANTATION DAYS scheduled for this Saturday, Sept. 3 has been postponed. Organizer Darlyne Vierra said that with Hurricane Lester possibly impacting the weather, it would be best to rescheduled, with the new date on Saturday, Sept. 24
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Click on document to enlarge.

See kaucalendar.com/TheDirectory2016.html
and kaucalendar.com/TheDirectory2016.pdf.

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