Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka`u News Briefs Saturday, April 15, 2017

A wide range of clothing and preparedness is seen amongst the estimated 1,500 people a day visiting Kilauea's
active flow field and ocean entry. Photo from HVO
SATURDAY WAS TAX DAY and marches were held in Hawai`i and throughout the country to "demand transparency from President Trump," asking for release of his tax returns to the public, stated Tulsi Gabbard, who represents Ka`u District in Congress. 
     “Every president has a duty to put the interests of the American people first and foremost, and the American people deserve to know whether allegiance to special interests or undue foreign influence might be interfering with that duty,” Gabbard said. "We need leadership in this country that is committed to setting aside personal interests and serving the interests of the American people. I thank everyone who took the time to march today to demand the transparency required to ensure our government remains of, by, and for the people.”
Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard holds a Town Hall meeting in
Hilo on Tuesday. 
      Last week, Gabbard signed a Discharge Petition that would force House Republicans to bring HR305 to the floor for a vote. This bill would require the president to disclose federal income tax returns for the three most recent taxable years and establishes civil and criminal penalties for failing to file or falsifying these income tax returns.
     Gabbard is also a cosponsor of Rep. Jerrold Nadler's resolution that would require Attorney General Jeff Sessions to turn over any records relating to investment by any foreign government in any entity owned in whole or in part by President Trump. Additionally, the resolution would require the Attorney General to produce documents related to Trump's failure to create a blind trust for his business dealings and his proposal to instead maintain an interest in his business holdings while turning over the day-to-day operation of those interests to his sons.
     Gabbard holds a Town Hall meeting in Hilo on Tuesday at 7:30 p.m. at Waiakea High School.

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Rugged trails along the lava coast require supportive shoes or boots, but not those with metal that can
heat up and burn when walking over hot spots. HVO photo
WHAT'S HOT AND NOT? ask the scientists at Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, who write in this week's Volcano Watch about safety and "essential lava field fashion," something they know about when working all over a volcano, It includes wearing clothes and footwear that won't melt:
     An estimated 1,500 visitors a day hike across the lava flow fields to view the ocean entry and search for active lava breakouts. Round-trip walking distance is far; a one-way trip to the ocean entry from Kalapana is around 4 miles. Add the chase for active lava, milling about, and the hike will quickly add up to over 10 miles when you return.
     With most visitors to Hawai`i not packing much real hiking gear, it's not uncommon to see visitors to the ocean entry that are not dressed for the adventure.
      Here are some tips from for essential lava field fashion from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory geologists who walk miles on Kīlauea lava flows—both new and old.
     Fields of newly erupted lava are not flat—they’re hummocks, cracks and crags that have been uplifted and overturned by the pressure of molten lava moving within the flows. To prevent sprains, shoes with support are a must. Boots with high ankle tops are ideal. But, low or mid-top shoes will work with thicker socks.  No-show socks, or no socks at all, are not recommended as they provide fragments of glass a direct path to a walker's skin.
Hiking the volcano requires clothing and shoes that don't melt and staying away from flowing lava.
NPS photo
     The glass fragments are produced from the thin surface of solidified pahoehoe. It crunches under foot and peels away to form razor sharp flakes. These flakes lie in wait, ready to scrape an ungloved hand if extended to the ground during a stumble or fall. When walking far distances on the pahoehoe, it’s a good idea to wear light gloves to help catch a fall. Cotton garden gloves work fine.  While hiking with these seems silly, one fall without them will make a believer. Light gloves are standard gear among the scientists and student groups that regularly visit the flow field.
     Light cotton clothing is recommended as a base layer, or next to the skin. Long-sleeved shirt and long pants made of natural fiber will not only prevent sunburn, they also offer a measure of protection against scrapes and abrasions. Synthetic clothing, while fast-drying and light, must not be exposed too closely to an active lava flow or it will quickly melt. While this is usually not dangerous, it will ruin the material.  Particularly today's expensive rain gear (which should be in the hiker's pack too).
Gloves protect hikers hands when falling on
sharp lava or when examining glass matter
from the volcano. HVO photo
     Most light shoes, not matter how fashionable, will melt if you stand on hot lava. This is obvious.  However, what's not so obvious is what a hot, or freshly-formed, lava flow looks like.  Contrary to popular belief, a flow formed minutes ago does not glow an orange-red. Its surface is a dull silver color, and the air above it shimmers with heat.
    Melting shoes are often not immediately noticed by the wearer. The attention getter is when the soles separate. Stitched soles, common on heavy hiking boots, are ideal as they do not delaminate under heat. But, the more affordable glued soles are fine as long as the hider watches the ground temperature closely.  Don't wear shoes with steel toes or metal shanks. The metal can heat up to foot-cooking temperatures.
    Best practice is to keep safe distances from active lava to protect skin and those outdoor-gear investments.
    All the usual accessories are still in fashion: hat, sunglasses, backpack, etc.  Multiple water bottles are recommended. Another overlooked item, the flashlight, is so in vogue that anyone sporting one will be the life of the party as soon as the sun goes down. Since the best viewing is during dawn or dusk (when you can see the glow), an LED flashlight or headlamp is priceless. So, don't go without one, day or night.
    Of course, all this fashion does come with a formality:  Remember to stay in designated safe areas despite what you see or read in social media.
    Additional Information on hiking to the ocean entry and lava viewing can be found at:

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Volcano Activity Updates; Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit and East Rift Zone. This past week, the summit lava lake level varied between about 22 and 29 m (71-95 ft) below the vent rim. The 61g flow was still active, with lava entering the ocean and building a small delta near Kamokuna and small surface breakouts downslope of Puʻu ʻŌʻō on the pali and the coastal plain. The 61g flows do not pose an immediate threat to nearby communities.

A flurry of 150 earthquakes relating inflation of a magma
reservoir near the summit of Mauna Loa.
        Mauna Loa is not erupting. During the past week, a flurry of more than 150 earthquakes were located beneath the upper west flank of the volcano with a peak of just under 60 quakes on April 08. GPS measurements continue to show deformation related to inflation of a magma reservoir beneath the summit and upper Southwest Rift Zone. No significant change in the gas output was noted this past week; the fumarole temperature continued to decrease.
     Two earthquakes were reported felt on the Island of Hawai'i in the past week. On Monday, April 10 at 1:31 a.m. HST a magnitude 3.1 earthquake occurred 14.6 km (9.1 mi) northwest of Na`alehu at a depth of 0.9 km (0.6 mi). On Wednesday, April 12 at 8:29 a.m. HST a magnitude 3.5 earthquake occurred 3.7 km (2.3 mi) southwest of Kīlauea Summit at a depth of 2.6 km (1.6 mi).
     Visit the HVO website (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov) for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea daily eruption updates and other volcano status reports, current volcano photos, recent earthquakes, and more; call (808) 967-8862 for a Kīlauea summary update; email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

SUNRISE SERVICE will be held Easter Sunday morning at Punalu`u Black Sand Beach. All denominations are invited. Time is 6 a.m. with music and prayer and morning refreshments.


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