Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka‘ū News Briefs Saturday, January 27, 2018

Keiki and families braved a stormy seashore for the tenth annual Keiki Fishing Tournament, presented by ʻO Kaʻū Kākou on Saturday at Punaluʻu. See Sunday's Kaʻū News Briefs for results. Photo by Jana Kaniho
THE WHALE COUNT on Saturday drew more than 557 volunteers statewide to the shores from Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park to Punaluʻu, South Point and Miloliʻi, all the way up the chain of inhabited Hawaiian Islands. It was the first event of the 2018 Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Ocean Count.
     Volunteers collected data from 46 sites statewide on January 27. A total of 172 whale sightings were recorded during the 10:30 a.m. – 10:45 a.m. time period, the most of any time period throughout the day's count. Weather conditions were ideal for viewing humpback whales across the majority of the state. Rain did affect a few sites on Hawaiʻi Island.
Volunteers look for whales off the Punaluʻu shore on Saturday at the first 
2018 Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale Count of the year. The others 
will be the last Saturdays of February and March. Photo by Geneveve Fyvie
     Ocean Count promotes public awareness about humpback whales, the sanctuary, and shore-based whale watching opportunities. The sanctuary holds Ocean Count three times each year during peak whale season. Participants tally humpback whale sightings and document the animals' surface behavior during the survey, which provides a snapshot of humpback whale activity from the shoreline.
     Preliminary data detailing whale sightings by site location are available at:
oceancount.org/resources/. Additional information is available on the sanctuary's website at http://hawaiihumpbackwhale.noaa.gov.
     The sanctuary, which is administered by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the State of Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources, protects humpback whales and their habitat in Hawaiian waters where they migrate each winter to mate, calve, and nurse their young.
     NOAA's mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage coastal and marine resources. See NOAA's Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and other social media channels.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

THE FUTURE OF THE KA‘Ū LEARNING ACADEMY is at risk and a public meeting will be held by the Hawai‘i State Public Charter School Commission this Monday, Jan. 29, from 4:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m., at Discovery Harbour Community Association Assembly Hall at 94-1604 Makaliʻi St. in Discovery Harbour. The school serves 95
KLA serves 95 students with classrooms in
Discovery Harbour.
students, grades three through seven.
     Managing Director Joe Iacuso said the board and administration would "greatly appreciate the support of the families and students of the community." He said he encourages them to attend the meeting.
     The Charter Commission is pointing to accounting practices as reasons for the notice of possible revocation of the school's charter. The school administration and its accountants say that the audit shows how the school can improve and come into compliance, following its startup period.
     Read more on Dec. 8 Kaʻū News BriefsJan. 26 Ka‘ū News Briefs, and on Page 18 of The Kaʻū Calendar newspaper, January edition, at kaucalendar.com.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

WHY DO SOME EARTHQUAKES HAVE NEGATIVE DEPTHS? That is the question answered in this week's Volcano Watch written by USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists:
     Astute visitors to the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory website may have noticed that some recent earthquakes have negative depths. This does not indicate a change in seismicity but, rather, an upgrade in HVO's seismic data processing system.
USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists provide Volcano Watch 
each week for readers of The Kaʻū Calendar'Kaʻū News Briefs
     The new system reports earthquake depths with respect to the common reference elevation, or datum, of sea level. When set to display earthquakes by depth, the HVO website map now includes a dark red color to indicate earthquakes that occur above sea level but below the ground surface. In the earthquake list to the right of the map, some events are now reported with negative depths.
     To understand negative depth, imagine a number line with zero in the middle, positive numbers going one direction, and negative numbers going the opposite direction. For Hawaiʻi earthquake depths, the zero point is now sea level. Positive depths indicate downward from sea level, and negative depths indicate upward from sea level.
     This common reference elevation is known as the geoid, an imaginary surface that approximates the ocean surface influenced by Earth's gravity and rotation. This surface extends inland to where sea level would be if land were not present. Thus, the geoid is equivalent to sea level, and the new earthquake depths are called "geoid depths."
     Prior to the new system, HVO reported "model depths" with respect to the ground surface above the earthquake hypocenter (point of origin). This model surface was not the actual ground elevation but, instead, was the average elevation of the five closest seismic stations.
Geoid Depths are now used to measure the depth of earthquakes. The above figure illustrates the difference between measuring the depth of earthquakes that are above sea level vs. those below sea level. The model depths shown are the previous way earthquakes were measured. Figure via USGS.com
     Since the earth's surface is not flat, model depth approximations did not always represent the true depth of an earthquake below ground. More importantly, it meant that there was no uniform frame of reference for comparing depths of different earthquakes. The zero elevation was different for every earthquake. This made it challenging to rigorously compare shallow earthquakes in HVO's earthquake catalog.
     To illustrate the difference between model and geoid depths, consider an earthquake beneath Mauna Loa, with its summit about 4 km (2.5 mi) above sea level. The model depth of this earthquake would have been previously reported as 3 km (1.9 mi), but with the new system, the geoid depth is now 3 km minus 4 km, or negative 1 km (‒0.6 mi).
     One advantage of geoid depths is that systematic bias caused by mountain topography is corrected. HVO can now essentially "straighten out" depth profiles beneath the island to more accurately present where earthquakes occur.
     By adopting the common reference datum of sea level, earthquakes reported nationwide are now more consistent and comparable. Regional seismic networks around the country have been migrating from model depth to geoid depth over the past few years. HVO's adoption of the sea level reference brings it in line with this standard.
     It's important to note that the absolute location of earthquakes being computed in three-dimensional space has not changed. The only difference is the point at which zero depth is assigned. All that has changed is how the depths are described.
On this chart, which shows the depth and magnitude of earthquakes during the last week, 
the earthquakes measured above geoid depth are shown in black. Figure via USGS.com
     It is also important to remember that earthquake locations are mathematical models of where an earthquake occurs within the earth. Accurate locations depend on precise measurements of seismic wave arrival times at seismometers, accurate positions of those seismometers, and a realistic model of the speed at which seismic waves travel through the Earth. HVO's seismic processing system receives real-time seismic data from about 100 stations, and computes locations automatically to track seismicity in Hawaii around the clock.
Earthquake monitoring equipment installed by Hawaiian
Volcano Observatory. Photo from HVO
     Occasionally, the automatically-posted earthquakes with negative depths seem to be "floating" above the ground surface. This, of course, is not physically possible. Rather, it is a reflection of imperfect Earth velocity models, which HVO intends to improve in the months and years to come. Once a seismologist reviews these events, the depths should go beneath the surface, where earthquakes really occur.
     Earthquake depth is an important parameter for volcano monitoring because it can be a clue to changing magmatic activity. A shallowing of earthquakes, with time, can indicate magma moving toward the surface to erupt. This is why HVO's seismologists want to accurately determine and describe earthquake depths, and inform the public about what's shaking beneath Hawaiʻi Island.
     Go to volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories for recent earthquake measurements. For more, see volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo, or email HOV at askHVO@usgs.gov.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

ONE SPACE IS LEFT FOR AN INTRODUCTION TO ENCAUSTIC WORKSHOP offered by Artist Mary Milelzcik at Volcano Art Center on Saturday, Feb. 17, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.
     Encaustic is a mixture of beeswax, damar resin, and pigment, which is applied to a solid absorbent surface. Each time a new layer is applied, it must be fused. The layers can be enhanced by carving with tools or drawing with pigment, oil sticks, etc. Photographs can be transferred and other materials embedded to create a variety of results.
Encaustic artwork by Mary Milelzcik. 
Take a class to learn how to make encaustic paintings on
Feb. 17. Photo from volcanoartcenter.org
     In this hands-on class, participants will learn safe studio practices, all the encaustic painting basics, and how to make his or her own medium. A shellac burn will be demonstrated. After instruction and experimenting, participants will have the opportunity to create a small finished encaustic painting or two to take home.
     Milelzcik will provide an assortment of marking tools and brushes, papers, photographs, minerals, fibers, and other natural and found materials for students to incorporate into their paintings. Students are encouraged to bring other items they would like to use. The class fee is $50 per Volcano Art Center members and $55 per non-member, plus a $15 supply fee. As there is only one space remaining, call 967-8222 to register.
     Milelzcik's artwork has been shown internationally. She has a B.A. degree from Sonoma State University's School of Expressive Arts, "a radical two-year upper division interdisciplinary experimental program that existed for several years in the 70's," says the event description. "This transformative educational experience set the path for an interesting career as a mixed media artist and photographer; as the Curator at Highways Performance Space and Gallery in Santa Monica, CA; and teaching experimental mixed media art and printmaking." The event description states that photography is an "important tool in her creative and documentary projects as well as for capturing images to use as a base for mixed media encaustic paintings and prints."
     Milelzcik also gathers pigments and organic materials to incorporate into her work, and experiments with local minerals and plants in her encaustic paintings. In her spare time, she provides strategic consultation and grant writing for small to medium sized nonprofits in Hawai‘i and California. She has a studio in Pāhoa, and specializes in mixed media art and printmaking.
     Visit volcanoartcenter.org for more.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

See public Ka‘ū events, meetings, entertainment at 
See Ka‘ū exercise, meditation, daily, weekly events at 
January print edition of The Ka‘ū Calendar is
free to 5,500 mailboxes throughout Ka‘ū, from Miloli‘i 
through Volcano. Also available free on stands throughout
the district. Read online at kaucalendar.com.

Boys Basketball: Monday, Jan. 29, @ Parker.
     Wednesday, Jan. 31, Kealakehe @ Ka‘ū.
     Saturday, Feb. 3, @ Kamehameha.

Wrestling: Saturday, Feb. 3 @ Kealakehe.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

U.H.-CTAHR EXTENSION AGENT ANDREA KAWABATA offers a Coffee Berry Borer Identification and Management Presentation at the Hamakua Harvest Farmers' Market tomorrow, Sunday, Jan. 28, from 10:30 a.m. to noon. Learn about identifying CBB and how to manage this coffee pest. "This class will be fairly basic, but see me after the presentation if you have specific questions," says Kawabata. The market is located at the intersection of Mamane Street and Hwy 19. For more details, visit hawaiicoffeeed.com.

JOIN ASTRONOMER AND CO-HOST OF PBS STAR GAZERS, DEAN REGAS, as he hosts Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park's first-ever Star Party at Kīlauea Overlook (on Crater Rim Drive, before Jaggar Museum) on Monday, Jan. 29, at 7 p.m. Explore nearby planets and deep-space celestial wonders above the glow of Halema‘uma‘u Crater. Dark Skies Rangers will answer questions. Powerful telescopes will be available at the Kīlauea Star Party event. Free, but subject to weather conditions; park entrance fees apply. For more, visit nps.gov/HAVO.

KA‘Ū FOOD PANTRY, INC., distributes Tuesday, Jan. 30, at St. Jude's Episcopal Church on Paradise Circle-Mauka, Ocean View, from 11:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. All participants are asked to respect the grounds where this will be held. Volunteers are always needed and welcomed, beginning at 8:30 a.m. on the last Tuesday of each month.

A LEARNING TOGETHER WORKSHOP AT THE OCEAN VIEW COMMUNITY CENTER, sponsored by Nā‘ālehu School, is offered Tuesday, Jan. 30, from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. For more, call 939-7033 or visit ovcahi.org.

VOLCANIC GEOLOGY ALONG SADDLE ROAD is the topic of an After Dark in the Park presentation given by Rick Hazlett, affiliate geologist with the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo, on Tuesday, Jan. 30. The presentation begins at 7 p.m. in the Kīlauea Visitor Center Auditorium of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Hazlett describes the "outdoor classroom" along Saddle Road, in which visitors can learn more about how the Islands aloha ‘āina (precious land) came to be. Free; park entrance fees apply. For more, visit nps.gov/HAVO.

WITNESS THE LUNAR ECLIPSE WITH ASTRONOMER DEAN REGAS, co-host of PBS Star Gazers, as he guides event participants through the total lunar eclipse expected Tuesday, Jan. 30, atop Kīlauea Volcano. Meet Regas at 8:30 p.m. at Kīlauea Overlook (on Crater Rim Drive, before Jaggar Museum). Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park's event description says "the park will provide an excellent vantage point to view the spectacle – weather permitting." Free; park entrance fees apply. For more, visit nps.gov/HAVO.

HULA VOICES WITH KUMU HULA STEPHANIE APOLO and Desiree Moana Cruz moderating take place Thursday, Feb. 1, from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m., at Volcano Art Center Gallery in Hawai‘i  Volcanoes National Park. The free, educational event occurs the first Thursday of each month - excluding April and December for 2018. For more, visit volcanoartcenter.org.

OCEAN VIEW NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH MEETS Thursday, Feb. 1, from 6 p.m. to 7 p.m., at Ocean View Community Center. For more, call 939-7033 or visit ovcahi.org.

‘O KA‘Ū KĀKOU'S SENIOR CITIZEN SURVEYs are due Thursday, Feb. 1. Senior citizens over the age of 62, who are interested in the Nā‘ālehu Senior Housing Project, are asked to fill out a quick five-question survey to help OKK gather general data essential to the planning of the project. To get a survey or for more information, contact Raylene Moses, 365-3788, or Nadine Ebert at 938-5124 or ebertn004@hawaii.rr.com.

‘O KA‘Ū KĀKOU MEETS Thursday, Feb. 1, from 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m., at the Aspin Institute Building near Punalu‘u Black Sands Beach Park. For more, contact Secretary Nadine Ebert: okksecretary@okaukaou.org.

A FUNDRAISING DINNER FOR KĪLAUEA DRAMA AND ENTERTAINMENT NETWORK will be hosted at Almafatano's Italian Restaurant on Friday, Feb. 2, from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. The event, KDENte, offers a buffet dinner and music entertainment. Tickets are $20 at the door. Call KDEN for reservations, 928-7344.

HUI MĀLAMA OLA NĀ ‘OIWI has announced a new beginner-level La‘au Lapa‘au class, shared by Po‘okela Ikaika Dombrigues, to be held in the Ka‘ū District Gym - across the street from Ka‘ū High School in Pāhala - starting next weekend, Feb. 3, and continuing for 2 more weekends: Feb. 17 and Feb. 24. The class, which will be held from 9 to noon on these days, is free, and open to the public.
     For more info, and to sign up, contact the Traditional Health team at 808-969-9220. You can learn more about the organization at hmono.org.

HEATHER METTLER'S GLASSWORK - handblown, chiseled, and etched - is showcased in a new Volcano Art Center Gallery Exhibit: Passage and Place. The display will continue to be shown until Sunday, Feb. 11, during normal gallery hours - 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., daily. Mettler's unique collection of glass explores the themes of migration, navigation, and immigration - how plants, animals, and people find their way to Hawai‘i. Free; park entrance fees apply.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

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