Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Kaʻū News Briefs Saturday, June 2, 2018

 Lava headed to Four Corners where Highway 132 and 137. It covered it this afternoon. Another lobe passed south of the intersection this morning 
and cut off escape routes for Vacationland and Kapoho Beach Lots. Lava inundated Green Lake, creating steam plume. 
Photo from USGS. Road ID by Extreme Exposures
LAVA IN LOWER PUNA IS HEADED TOWARD KAPOHO BAY HOMES AND THE OCEAN this evening. Civil Defense said that some people refused to leave and could be trapped, with only the possibility of walking out. About 500 homes in the two communities of Kapoho Beach Lots and Vacationland are threatened.
Lava entered Green Lake sending up a steam plume and evaporating
all of its water. Photo from Lillie Galarneau
     The lava comes from Fissure 8, which feeds a large, channelized flow that traveled along Highway 132, the Pāhoa-Kapoho Road, with two flow fronts. One crossed Kapoho-Pohoiki Road, Hwy 137 this morning. The second inundated Four Corners at Government Beach Road and Hwy 137 this afternoon. Civil Defense reported at 6 p.m that lava was headed toward the ocean and Kapoho Beach lots. Access was cut off by lava to both Kapoho Beach Lots and Vacationland neighborhoods. Residents were asked to leave by 2 p.m. yesterday.
     Civil Defense and Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory reported that part of the flow entered Green Lake, creating a steam plume and evaporating all of the lava in the lake before the plume vanished about 1:30 p.m.
   Hawaiian Volcano Observatory reported after an overflight that lava was advancing on a broad front, over 300 yards wide.
     Civil Defense authorized Waʻa Waʻa and Papaya Farms Road residents access through Government Beach Road between Kahakai St. and Cinder Rd.
     Ash and Pele's hair were reported falling on the town of Pahoa today, and half of Leilani Estates remained under mandatory evacuation, with many homes destroyed.
More than 85 homes have been destroyed by lava flows in lower Puna, as of this morning. The dots represent the locations
of the destroyed houses, as lava headed this evening for Kapoho Beach Lots. Image from Google Maps
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WHAT’S NEW AND WHAT’S NOT AT KĪLAUEAis the focus of this week’s Volcano Watch, a weekly article and activity update written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates:

     With the current activity at the volcano’s lower East Rift Zone and summit, it’s an understatement to say that Kīlauea has been making worldwide headlines the past month. 

Crews make visual observations of activity at fissure 8 around 5:30 a.m. on May 30. Fountain
heights reach 70 to 80 m (230 to 260 ft) above ground level. The fountaining feeds a 
lava flow
that is moving to the northeast along Highway 132 into the area of Noni Farms road. USGS photo
     To the uninitiated, the scientific and colloquial terms that are used to describe eruptive processes and products at Hawaiian volcanoes might seem unusual or scary, when, in fact, they describe what’s been happening at Kīlaueafor more than three decades. So, today we address Kīlauea’s current activity - what’s new and what’s not - starting with the two eruption sites: East Rift Zone and summit.

     Kīlauea Volcano’s East Rift Zone has been erupting nearly non-stop since 1983, with an eruption on the volcano’s middle East Rift Zone - generally referred to as the Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption. Puʻu ʻŌʻō is the volcanic cone built from the accumulation of cinder and spatter falling from episodic high lava fountains during the eruption’s first three years.
     For 35-plus years, lava erupting from vents on or near Puʻu ʻŌʻō created surface flows that advanced down the south flank of Kīlauea. This changed on April 30, 2018, when magma from the middle East Rift Zone intruded into the lower part of the rift zone. This intrusion of magma ultimately resulted in the fissure vents now erupting in Hawaiʻi Island’s lower Puna District. So, while an East Rift Zone eruption is not new, the location of the current vents (or fissures) is different from past events.

Viewed from the intersection of Nohea and Leilani Streets at 10:15 a.m. on June 1, the Fissure 8 
lava fountain (to the right) appears to have decreased in height from previous sustained heights 
of 260 feet. To the left, Fissure 7 appears to be showing renewed outgassing. USGS photo
     Kīlauea’s summit eruption began in March 2008, when a vent opened in Halema‘uma‘u, a crater within the volcano’s summit caldera. For over 10 years, this vent was the site of a lava lake that rose and fell - sometimes fluctuating as much as 30 m (100 ft) in a 24-hour period - in concert with summit inflation and deflation. Throughout that time, rocks falling from the steep vent walls triggered numerous small gas-driven explosions that often blasted molten lava and pieces of older rock onto the rim of Halema‘uma‘u and adjacent caldera floor.

     In early May 2018, in response to East Rift Zone changes, the summit lava lake dropped 100s of meters (yards) and completely out of view. Concern grew that magma feeding the lava lake could drop below the water table, allowing groundwater to enter the system, which could cause steam-driven explosions. So, while small summit explosions are not new, the mechanism, vigor, plume heights, and extent of ash fallout from the current explosive activity are.

     We’ll now address what’s new - or not - with volcanic products and processes on Kīlauea.

     Sulfur dioxide: When a new eruptive vent opens on Kīlauea, sulfur dioxide emissions increase - sometimes dramatically - as happened with the opening of the summit vent in 2008, the Kamoamoa fissure eruption in 2011, and now, with the lower East Rift Zone fissure eruption. Sulfur dioxide is one of the three most abundant gases released during any volcanic eruption - the other two being water vapor and carbon dioxide - and it has been emitted in large quantities since the start of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō eruption in 1983. More info: vog.ivhhn.org/leilani-eruption.

Photo of the easternmost Fissure 8 lava flow in the vicinity of Kapoho Crater at
6:00 AM on June 1. This 
lava flow field has been advancing at about 80 yards/hour,
and at 7AM was about 0.85 miles west of the Four Corners intersection. USGS photo
     Vog: Sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen, sunlight, moisture, and other gases and particles in the atmosphere to create a visible haze known as vog (volcanic air pollution), which has been an ongoing issue in Hawaiʻi since 1983, as well as during all previous eruptions of Kīlauea (and Mauna Loa). Increased sulfur dioxide emissions can result in more widespread and intense vog. Impacts depend on wind direction and location - whether or not some

one is downwind of the vog source - as well as individual sensitivity. More info: pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2017/3017
/fs20173017.pdf and hvog.ivhhn.org.
     Laze: Since 1983, lava flows erupted from Kīlauea have reached the ocean about half the time. The interaction of hot lava and cool seawater forms a white plume known as “laze” (lava haze), which is composed of condensed seawater steam, hydrochloric acid gas, and tiny shards of volcanic glass. This corrosive mixture can irritate lungs, eyes, and skin, but its effects diminish rapidly with distance from the ocean entry.

     Ash: Small amounts of ash, which is carried by wind, have erupted from Kīlauea’s summit vent since it opened in 2008. Where ash falls depends on the wind direction. With recent changes at the summit, vigorous explosions have occurred more frequently at Halema‘uma‘u, resulting in higher, ash-laden plumes that can be blown far downwind.  More info: volcanoes.usgs.gov/obser
vatories/hvo/faq_ash.html and vog

     Pele’s hair: Thin strands of volcanic glass, called “Pele's hair,” after the goddess of Hawaiian volcanoes, form when lava is thrown into the air or stretched into filaments - like pulling taffy. Throughout Kīlauea’s history, erupting lava fountains and lava lakes have produced Pele’s hair, which can be blown far downwind.

     With Kīlauea, as with so much else, the more things change, the more they stay the same.
See public Ka‘ū events, meetings, entertainment
Print edition of The Ka‘ū Calendar is free to 5,500 mailboxes 
throughout Ka‘ū, from Miloli‘i through Volcano, and free on 
stands throughout the district. Read online at kaucalendar.com 
and facebook.com/kaucalendar.
To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

23rd Annual Kona Classic Jackpot - Classic Fishing Tournament Series, Sun, Jun 3, Honokōhau Club House. All profits go towards marine conservation and youth educational programs in and around Miloli‘i. $300 entry fee, 4 per boat, $25 additional. Cash prizes $100-$3,000. Qualifying weights: Marlin, 100lbs; Ahi, 50lbs; Mahi, 15lbs; Ono, 15lbs. Grand Prize qualifies for Las Vegas Trip. Contact Wilfred Kaupiko, 896-6272, kalanihale@gmail.com. Sponsored by Kalanihale, kalanihale.org

Stained Glass Basics II, Sat & Sun, Jun 3, 9 & 10, 9-noon, Volcano Art Center. Prerequisite: Stained Glass Basics I. $90/VAC Member, $100/non-Member, plus $30 supply fee. Register in advance. volcanoartcenter.org, 967-8222

Palm Trail, Sun, Jun 3, 9:30-12:30pm, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Moderately difficult, 2.6-mile loop traverses scenic pastures along an ancient cinder cone, with some of the best panoramic views Kahuku has to offer. nps.gov/HAVO

Ham Radio Potluck Picnic, Sun, Jun 3, noon-2pm, Manukā State Park. Anyone interested in learning about ham radio is welcome to attend. Sponsored by South Point Amateur Radio Club and Amateur Radio Emergency Service. View sites.google.com/site/southpointarc or sites.google.com/view/southhawaiiares/home. Rick Ward, 938-3058

Hawai‘i County Council Meetings, Mon/Tue/Wed, Jun 4 & 5 (Committees)/6 (Council), Hilo. Mon/Tue, Jun 18 (Committees)/19 (Council), Kona. Ka‘ū residents can participate via videoconferencing at Nā‘ālehu State Office Building. Agendas at hawaiicounty.gov

Ka‘ū Homeschool Co–op Group, Mon, Jun 4 & 18, 1pm, Ocean View Community Center. A parent-led homeschool activity/social group building community in Ka‘ū. Laura Roberts, 406-249-3351

Ocean View Volunteer Fire Dept. Meeting, Mon, Jun 4, 4-6pm, Ocean View Community Center. 939-7033, ovcahi.org

Hawai‘i County Council Meetings, Tue/Wed, Jun 5 (Committees)/6 (Council), Hilo. Mon/Tue, Jun 18 (Committees)/19 (Council), Kona. Ka‘ū residents can participate via videoconferencing at Nā‘ālehu State Office Building. Agendas at hawaiicounty.gov

Hawai‘i Wildlife Fund Volunteer Clean-Up w/Hawai‘i Outdoor Institute, Tue, Jun 5, contact in advance for meet up time at Wai‘ōhinu Park. Space limited. Free; donations appreciated. kahakai.cleanups@gmail.com, wildhawaii.org

Discovery Harbour Volunteer Fire Dept. Meeting, Tue, Jun 5, 4-6pm, Jun 19, 4:30-6:30pm, Discovery Harbour Community Hall. 929-9576, discoveryharbour.net

Ka‘ū Coffee Growers Meeting, Tue, Jun 5, 6-8pm, Pāhala Community Center.

Hawai‘i County Council Meetings, Wed, Jun 6 (Council), Hilo. Mon/Tue, Jun 18 (Committees)/19 (Council), Kona. Ka‘ū residents can participate via videoconferencing at Nā‘ālehu State Office Building. Agendas at hawaiicounty.gov

AdvoCATS, Wed, Jun 6, 7-5pm, Ocean View Community Center. Free Cat Spay & Neuter Clinic. 895-9283, advocatshawaii.org

Veteran's Center, Thu, Jun 7, 8:30-12:30pm, Jun 21, 8:30-11:30am, Ocean View Community Center. VA benefits and individual counseling services. Matthew, 329-0574, ovcahi.org

Ocean View Neighborhood Watch Meeting, Thu, Jun 7, 6-7pm, Ocean View Community Center. 939-7033, ovcahi.org

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program will take sign-ups in Kaʻū, through Jun 29 (closed Jun 11).
     In Nā’ālehu, it will take place at the Hawai‘i County Economic Opportunity Council office, back of Senior Center, Wed-Fri, 8-1pm, 929-9263.
     In Ocean View, it will take place at Ocean View Community Center, Mon and Tue, 8-1pm.
     In Pāhala, it will take place at the Edmund Olson Trust Office, Tue and Wed, 8:30-12:30pm. See more for eligibility requirements and application.

Park Rangers invite the public to downtown Hilo to learn about the volcanic activity, to get their NPS Passport Book stamped, and to experience the Hawaiian cultural connection to volcanoes. Rangers are providing programs at the Mokupāpapa Discovery Center at 76 Kamehameha Avenue, Tuesday through Saturdays, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Admission is free.

Sign Up for the Nāʻālehu Independence Day Parade, to be held June 30. If interested, call Debra McIntosh at 929-9872.

Tūtū and Me Offers Home Visits to those with keiki zero to five years old: home visits to aid with helpful parenting tips and strategies, educational resources, and a compassionate listening ear. Home visits are free, last 1.5 hours, two to four times a month, for a total of 12 visits, and snacks are provided. For info and to register, call Linda Bong 464-9634.

St. Jude's Episcopal Church Calls For More Volunteers for the Saturday community outreach. Especially needed are cooks for the soup served to those in need, and organizers for the hot showers. "Volunteering for St. Jude's Saturday Shower and Soup ministry is an opportunity to serve God in a powerful way," states St. Jude's April newsletter. Volunteer by contacting Dave Breskin at 319-8333.

Volcano Forest Runs Registration Open through Friday, August 17, at 6 p.m. Half marathon $85, 10K $45, 5K $30. Registration increases August 1: half marathon to $95, 10K to $55, and 5K to $35. Race is run from Cooper Center on Wright Road in Volcano Village on Saturday, August 18.

5th annual Ka‘ū Coffee Trail Run registration open. Race day Sat, Sept 22, ; begins and ends at Ka‘ū Coffee Mill. Register online before Mon, July 9: 5K, $25/person; 10K, $35/person; and 1/2 Marathon, $45/person. From July 9 to Aug 11: $30/person, $40/person, and $45/person, respectively. From Aug 13 to Sept 20: $35/person, $45/person, and $55/person. Race day registration ends Sat, Sept 22, at  Event organizers, ‘O Ka‘ū Kākou; start location, Ka‘ū Coffee Mill.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

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