Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka`u News Briefs Sunday, Aug. 31, 2014

Gases and particles emitted by active volcanoes like Kilauea can affect the climate, according to scientists at Hawaiian Volcano
Observatory. Photo by Peter Anderson
THE TRUST FOR PUBLIC LANDS HAS OUTLINED the future of Kaunamano if plans to purchase and preserve the property go through.
Ka `Ohana O Honu`apo would be stewards of Kaunamano, which stretches
along the coast south of Honu`apo.
      The property will be owned by Hawai`i County and stewarded by the nonprofit Ka `Ohana O Honu`apo that stewards Honu`apo Park. Working with the Ka`u community, the Keanu Family with ancestral ties to the property, and Kuahiwi Ranch, the entities would pursue a Management Plan and a Preservation Plan. 
      Goals of the plans include protection of all cultural sites, native species, and the marine environment; access for Hawaiian cultural practitioners and Ka`u subsistence fishing and gathering; pedestrian access and limited vehicular access; limiting built improvements to fencing and educational signage; continued ranching if it does not compromise resources; and frequent community monitoring.
      The Trust for Public Lands is asking individuals and organizations for letters of support for the purchase. Send letters by Tuesday, Sept. 2 to Laura Ka`akua at laura.kaakua@tpl.org.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

Jeff Mikulina
BLUE PLANET FOUNDATION’S EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR JEFF MIKULINA is disappointed with Hawaiian Electric Co.’s latest plan that the utility said will bring Hawai`i to the highest level of renewable energy in the nation by 2030. The utility submitted its plan to the state Public Utilities Commission last week following the PUC’s rejection of the utility’s Integrated Resource Planning Report in April.
      HECO’s plans include increasing the number of rooftop solar systems, expanding use of energy storage systems and switching from oil to liquefied natural gas to fire electricity generating units.
      According to Mikulina, the utility needs to change its business model and find ways to profit from rooftop solar and sales of battery storage and power for electric vehicles.
      “The utility had the opportunity to really think radically, and radical is the least riskiest position right now,” Mikulina told Sophie Cocke, of Civil Beat. “Playing it safe is the riskiest thing they can do. 
      “I think that is how a Google would look at it as opposed to a 100-year-old power company,” he said.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

KA`U TROJANS WON IN EIGHT-MAN FOOTBALL competition last night with its season opener against Kohala Cowboys. Ka`u beat Kohala 34 – 12. Wide receiver Cy Tamura, who also plays backup quarterback and defense, scored four touchdowns. Full back Kaimanu Medeiros Dancel scored one.
      With every Trojan touchdown, Ka`u chose to run instead of kicking for extra points. They succeeded once, crossing the line for two extra points. Kupono Pakakiko-Leffew scored two points with a safety.
Trojans won their season opener at home last night.
      Evan Manoha shined with his defensive teammates in holding back the Cowboys by making many tackles. Tamura made two interceptions as a safety.
      Scoreless in the first half, Kohala returned a kickoff for an 80-yard touchdown in the second half but could not overcome Ka`u.
      For the first time in many seasons, a Trojans cheerleading team, led by Nanea Medeiros, kept the crowd roaring. More than a dozen Trojan women and Mark Galacio form the Trojan cheerleading squad.
      Rain pounded the field on and off for most of the game, leaving it very muddy with players slipping and sliding. However, the crowd stayed close to witness the win.
      Head Coach Kainoa Ke will lead the Trojans to their next battle, taking the team to Maui on Friday, Sept. 5 for a game against Seabury Hall. Trojans are still raising money to pay for the off-island trip by selling T-shirts at teespring.com/kaufootball. Donations can also be made by contacting Athletic Director Kalei Namohala at 928-2012.
      This story was written with reports from Ka`u High School journalism interns Kaweni Ibarra and Cheyenne DaCalio.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.  

Ka`u kept the higher points on the scoreboard all evening with the 8-man season
opener at home. Photo by Cheyenne Dacalio, Ka`u High Journalism Intern
KA`U HIGH GIRLS VOLLEYBALL TEAMS hosted Hawai`i Preparatory Academy yesterday. HPA came out on top in both junior varsity and varsity. Scores were 12 – 25, 25 – 27 and 18 – 25 for varsity and 17 – 25, 25 – 16 and 10 – 15 for junior varsity.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

VOLCANIC DISCHARGES OF GASES AND PARTICLES into the atmosphere can affect climate, according to a recent Volcano Watch article posted by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. 
      According to the article, the three dominant gases emitted by volcanoes are water vapor (about 90 percent), carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Both water vapor and carbon dioxide are important greenhouse gases that trap solar radiation.
      When radiation from the sun heats the earth’s surface, the surface re-radiates some of this energy back up through the atmosphere as infrared radiation, which selectively heats greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. “The greater the concentration of greenhouse gases, the greater the atmospheric heating,” the article stated. “Without greenhouse gases, the infrared radiation would just escape into space. The greenhouse gases, however, re-radiate the heat in all directions, including back to the surface. 
      “Carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere remains there for a long time, so increasing concentrations of this gas result in long-term global warming. The residence time of water vapor in the atmosphere is normally much less than that of carbon dioxide. However, the concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere does increase with temperature. So, heating of the atmosphere by carbon dioxide buildup increases the amount of atmospheric water vapor, creating a positive feedback mechanism that further increases the temperature.
Water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide or the three dominant
gases emitted a Halema`uma`u. Photo by Tim Orr/HVO
      “The scientific community generally accepts that the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the principal contributor to global warming. But, it’s noteworthy that volcanoes contribute less than one percent to this buildup. The bulk of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide comes, instead, from human activity.
      “For example, the largest volcanic eruption during the past 100 years occurred in 1991 at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. It would take 700 Pinatubo-like eruptions each year to equal the annual carbon dioxide emissions from human activities. Closer to home, it would take more than 11,000 simultaneous Kilauea eruptions to equal that amount.
      “Large volcanic eruptions have been observed to affect Earth’s climate, but through global cooling rather than warming. This cooling is the work of sulfur dioxide, the third common volcanic gas.
      “Sulfur dioxide injected into the stratosphere by powerful eruptions reacts chemically, producing sulfur acids, which in turn form the same sulfate aerosols commonly found in vog (volcanic smog). These tiny stratospheric aerosol particles reflect sunlight (heat) energy back into space, causing cooling of the lower atmospheric layers.
      “The 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption created what is thought to be the largest stratospheric sulfur dioxide injection of the 20th century. For three years following the eruption, the earth’s surface cooled by as much as 2.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

Himalayan ginger in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.
Photo from NPS
PARTICIPANTS LEARN ABOUT THE BIRTH of the islands from the Hawaiian hotspot and about past eruptions that impacted Kahuku Unit of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park at a free program tomorrow, Labor Day, from 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. Visitors will be able to identify various pu`u (hills) and other volcanic features and learn about their formation.

STEWARDSHIP AT THE SUMMIT is and ongoing program where volunteers help out Hawai`i Volcanoes National park and the `aina (land) by cutting invasive Himalayan ginger (Heydechium gardnerianum) on park trails. Loppers and gloves are provided. Participants are encouraged to wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants and closed-toe shoes.
      Work is often in the shade of the forest with sounds of native honeycreepers like `apapane, `amakihi and `oma`o above to serenade volunteers as they work. Water, snacks, rain gear and sun protection are recommended.
      This project is open to the public, and no reservations are required. Interested people can stop by Kilauea Visitor Center to get directions and more information. The hike is around a one mile, moderate round trip into Kilauea caldera down Halem`auma`u Trail, leaving from Kilauea Visitor Center. The hike involves walking over rough uneven terrain on a dirt and rock path, with up to a 400-foot elevation change.
      Stewardship at the Summit takes place each week in September on Fridays, except for Sept. 12. That week, the event is on Saturday, Sept. 13.


See kaucalendar.com/Directory2014.swf.

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