Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka`u News Briefs Sunday, Jan. 25, 2015

The annual Keiki Fishing Tournament, sponsored by O Ka`u Kakou yesterday at Punalu`u Beach, saw Ryder Cabreros take
first in the aholehole division. Brayden Bello took second and Kawai Smith took third. Photo by Lee McIntosh
VOLCANO AWARENESS MONTH WRAPS UP THIS WEEK at Kilauea Visitor Center in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park with a scientist talk on Tuesday, Jan. 27 at 7 p.m. Entitled Pahoehoe Lava: the Ebb and Flow of Molten Rock, the presentation will feature University of Hawai`i geologists Ken Hon and Cheryl Gensecki.
      Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's recent Volcano Watch article discusses how HVO scientists track lava activity from the air and ground, particularly in light of the flow that began June 27 of 2014 and continues to descend into Puna from Kilauea Volcano. The scientists write:
USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist Matt Patrick uses a 
handheld GPS receiver to map the boundary of an active lobe of the 
June 27th lava flow near Pāhoa. Photo from USGS
     Volcanology is fundamentally an observational science. To better understand how volcanoes work, scientists must examine volcanic eruptions and their deposits. Field observations are, therefore, at the core of HVO's response to lava flow activity on the Island of Hawaiʻi.
     In that regard, little has changed since lava flows inundated Kalapana in 1990. As flows advanced toward, and ultimately through, that community, HVO geologists were on the ground, making detailed maps that were used to alert Civil Defense officials and local residents of the potential lava-flow hazards. While the basic nature of geologic observations has not changed, the tools we use today are much different than those used 25 years ago.

     In 1990, HVO geologists mapped lava flows by hand, on the ground and from the air, using recent aerial photos of the area for orientation. Lava flow outlines were sketched onto an acetate sheet overlain on the aerial photo. As lava covered more and more of the community, it became increasingly difficult to determine precise flow locations due to the lack of identifiable landmarks. In some cases, downed power lines were the only indication of where roads had been! Back in the office, the flow outlines from the aerial photos were transferred to a paper topographic map for copying and distribution. 
     Today, lava flows are mapped using space-based methods. As described in last week's Volcano Watch, timely satellite data can be used to track flow progress, especially when crews are not able to get to the field. When scientists are able to observe the flow directly, either on the ground or by helicopter, they map the flow boundaries using the Global Positioning System (GPS).
Kupipi fishing drew keiki to Punalu`u yesterday with Kanoa Dacalio
 taking first, Kircia Derasin second and Chesney-Jo Hao third.
Photo by Lee McIntosh

     Although GPS was available in 1990, the instrumentation for recording positions was bulky and expensive, and data were not especially accurate because the U.S. military intentionally degraded the signal. This scrambling, called "selective availability," was turned off in 2000, allowing GPS users around the world access to the same accuracy as the military, down to a few meters (yards). Technological developments also improved the quality of GPS receivers, resulting in the compact handheld units that are so common today and easily used in the field. 
     Using handheld GPS units, HVO geologists can now quickly map flows via helicopter or by walking around flow margins. Upon returning to HVO, they download the GPS data and plot the flow margins on a map using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Other map layers, like roads and towns, are added to the plots to produce the maps published on HVO's website (http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maps). These maps form the basis for much of HVO's monitoring of the June 27th lava flow.
     In addition to GPS data, geologists track flow activity using both regular and thermal cameras, capturing images from the ground and from the air (both types of images are posted on HVO's website, http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/multimedia/index.php, after crews return from the field). HVO scientists recently developed the ability to create a mosaic of thermal images (for example, http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maps/uploads/image-225.jpg), which provide high-resolution views of active lava breakouts over the entire flow field.
    Over the past 25 years, technological advances have enabled more accurate and timely tracking of lava flows from the ground, air, and space, as well as rapid distribution of that information via the Internet. Although the fundamental observations made by HVO geologists remain much the same, the manner in which data are collected has greatly improved.

     For more, visit http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov, email askHVO@usgs.gov, or call 808-967-8844.
To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

Joe Buyuan caught the
 second most fish.
Photo by Lee McIntosh

Toby Kekoa-Burgess caught the
 largest fish at the tournament.
Photo by Lee McIntosh
Ikaika Derasin caught the
most fish at Punalu`u.
Photo by Lee McIntosh
Kircia Derasin and Akela Kuahiwinui tied for third in catching the most
 fish at the Keiki Tournament.  Photo by Lee McIntosh                    

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION O KA`U KAKOU has announced winners in the Keiki Fishing Tournament. It is the largest shoreline event in Ka`u each year and took place yesterday at  Punalu`u Beach, withhundreds of keiki and family members participating. State Department of Land & Natural Resources staff members were on hand to teach about the rules that protect ocean resources. Families learned about Disaster Preparedness from the Red Cross and about early education offered locally by the Tutu & Me program. All of the fish caught were returned to the ocean after measuring.
     Keki took home prizes. Winners in the Kupipi category were Kanoa Dacalio, first, Kiricia Derasin second and Chesney-Jo Hao third. For hinalea, Asia Sesson took first, Cruze Alani second and Kaleopono Paliko Lefew third.
     Ikaika Derasin caught the most fish. Second-most fish went to Joe Buyuan and tying for third-most fish were Kersia Derasin and Akela Kuahiwinui. Toby Kekoa Burgess caught the largest fish.
     Ka`u's newly elected County Council member Maile Medeiros David attended the event. Keioki Kahumoku and friends provided music.  To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

In the hinalea category, Asia Sesson took first, Cruze Alani second.
Kaleopono Paliko Lefew third. Photo by Lee McIntosh
A CELEBRATION OF  NEW MUSIC EDUCATION FOR THE KA`U PUBLIC SCHOOLS is this coming Saturday, Jan. 31, as local musicians join jazz musician and music teacher Jr. Volcano Choy. Choy will be on trumpet, Brian McCree on acoustic bass, Bruce David on drums and Betsy Curtis will share her jazz vocals.
     The concert takes place from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. at Pahala Plantation House.
     Volcano Art Center recently received a grant from the Hawai`i  Community Foundation to restore band instruments that have remained idle in the Ka`u High School Band Room for years. Jr. Volcano Choy has begun a series of after-school classes for Middle School students at the Pahala campus. The concert will introduce him to the community as he joins local musicians Keoki Kahumoku and friends. Admission is free but donations encouraged to help fund the program at the school.
To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.


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