Channel: The Kaʻū Calendar News Briefs, Hawaiʻi Island
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Ka`u News Briefs Saturday, April 4, 2015

The draft Ka`u Community Development Plan, which is now available for public review, considers options regarding protection of the Ka`u Coast. Photo by Julia Neal
THE DRAFT KA`U COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN, which is now available for public review, discusses protecting the Ka`u Coast from development. 
      The Steering Committee is considering options for Policy 29, which reads:
      “Site-specific shoreline setbacks shall be established at the earliest stages of the land use planning and development process either 1) at 1,320 feet (1/4-mile) or 2) as far as practicable from the shoreline using a science-based assessment and in consideration of the physical limitations of the property. The science-based assessment shall consider:
  • A regional, landscape perspective; 
  • Viewplane and line-of-sight analysis, toward the sea from the state highway nearest the coast and along the shoreline; 
  • Shoreline public access; 
  • The Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail corridor; 
  • Cultural and historic resources; 
  • Coastal hydrology, including drainage ways, springs, anchialine pools, and wetlands; 
  • Coastal ecosystems, including native, endemic, and threatened species and other sensitive coastal and near shore species; 
  • Coastal erosion rates; 
  • Geologic appraisals; 
  • Projected sea level rise; 
  • Flooding and flood zones, including storm surge inundation; 
  • Subsidence.” 
      Other options being considered are to eliminate Policy 29 entirely; remove the ¼-mile setback requirement; remove “1,320 feet (1/4-mile)” and replace with “a distance to be determined with community input;” or reconsider comprehensively all sections pertaining to coastal development to determine how best to achieve the related community objectives.
      Two of four identical speak-outs take place a week from today on Saturday, April 11 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. at Na`alehu Community Center and from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. at Ocean View Community Center. They are organized as open houses where residents can find visual displays about parts of the CDP they are interested in, discuss CDP strategies with people familiar with the plan and provide feedback.
      Next month, on May 9 at 1 p.m., a discussion at Na`alehu Community Center will focus on coastal management.
      The draft CDP is available at kaucdp.info and local libraries and community centers. Comments and feedback are welcome through June 1.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

Peter Apo
“THE THIRTY METER TELESCOPE is at a flash point,” Office of Hawaiian Affairs trustee Peter Apo wrote on Thursday, the day when 31 people were arrested when protesting construction of the telescope.
      “The monetary value of Mauna Kea viewing time is astronomical,” Apo wrote. The first telescope was built in 1968, and now there are 13. The University of Hawai`i charges fees for use of the telescopes. The average rate, according to Apo, is $1 per minute, and UH pays the state $1 per year to lease the land.
      “The long-standing overtly contentious face-off between Native Hawaiians and the University of Hawai`i’s aggressive advocacy of maximizing Mauna Kea as a premier site for astronomical observatories is heading into its most serious period of conflict,” Apo wrote.
      “Over the years, the state has failed in its trust responsibility to Hawaiians in the management of the growth of the observatories on Mauna Kea.
      “This developing crisis will be an interesting test of leadership for the governor, the university, the Department of Land and Natural Resources and the astronomy community.
      “I get the same feeling about the character, commitment, and high-stakes nature of this protest movement that I had during the early days of the stop the bombing of Kaho`olawe movement. In that case, Native Hawaiians took on the entire military industrial complex of the United States, and the rest is history.”
      Following the arrests, Apo called for a 30-day moratorium on construction and for Gov. David Ige and UH President David Lassner to assemble a group of leaders to reassess the state's oversight of the ceded lands.
      See peterapo.com.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

HAWAIIAN VOLCANO OBSERVATORY scientists compare the current lava flow on Kilauea with the one that covered Kalapana in the current issue of Volcano Watch
      “To the casual observer, lava that recently flowed into the outskirts of Pahoa might look a lot like the lava that grazed the village of Kalapana in November 1986 and completely overran it in 1990,” the article states. “In fact, these Kilauea flows were significantly different in most aspects that affect how far and how fast lava moves downslope.
      “Theoretically speaking, the surface extent (how far) and advance rate (how fast) of lava is regulated primarily by three factors: eruption rate; lava temperature and, therefore, ‘crystallinity,’ at the time of eruption; and topography (slope of the land). Crystallinity refers to the abundance and types of phenocrysts (crystals that grow in magma before it erupts to the surface) and micro-phenocrysts (minute crystals that grow in a lava flow as it advances and cools) in lava.
      “Olivine, the first mineral to grow in magma as it rises into Kilauea’s summit reservoir system, crystallizes at a temperature below 1,215 degrees Celsius (2,219 degrees Fahrenheit). At lower temperatures, below 1,150 degrees Celsius (2,102 degrees Fahrenheit), the minerals pyroxene and plagioclase also crystallize along with olivine.
Pahoehoe that flowed through Kalapana, left, were hotter, more fluid and faster
moving than the lava that threatened Pahoa in October. Photos from USGS
      “When lava is erupted, micro-phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene form within the molten rock as it flows over the ground and cools. As crystallinity increases, the flow becomes more viscous (pasty) and eventually stalls and solidifies.
      “From 1986 to 1992, lava flows were erupted from Kupaianaha, an active vent less than seven miles from Kalapana. During that time, eruption temperatures ranged from 1,155 to 1,170 degrees Celsius (2,111 – 2,138 degrees Fahrenheit), and the lava contained few olivine crystals, about 0.04 inches in size.
      “Lava tubes from Kupaianaha carried lava down the steep southern flank of Kilauea. These tubes enabled efficient delivery of 300,000 –400,000 cubic meters (390,000–520,000 cu yds) of lava per day to the coastal plain at temperatures of 1,145 – 1,160 degrees Celsius (2,093 – 2,120 degrees Fahrenheit).
      “At those temperatures, the tube-fed flows that reached Kalapana were still relatively fluid and crystal-poor. This resulted in the fast-moving pahoehoe sheet-flows that quickly spread through Kalapana and covered the black sand beach at Kaimu Bay in 1990.
      “In contrast, the June 27th lava flows erupted from the northeast flank of Pu`u `O`o are moving down the crest of Kilauea’s East Rift Zone toward Pahoa, more than 12 miles away. Since 2011, eruption rates have been estimated at about 175,000 cubic meters (230,000 cu yds) per day, the lowest sustained rate in over 30 years of eruption, and the eruption temperatures have been 1140 – 1145 degrees Celsius (2,085–2,095 degrees Fahrenheit).
      “The June 27th lava flows contain a mix of olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts, often as crystal clusters 0.04 – 0.2 inches in size. In contrast, the higher temperature Kalapana flows contained only olivine phenocrysts.
      “Despite its cooler temperatures and lower eruption rates, the June 27th lava flow traveled nearly twice the distance of the 1986 and 1990 Kalapana flows. But, the Kalapana flows were cut short when they flowed into the ocean, so how much farther they could have traveled is not known.
      “As with the abrupt termination of the 1986 Kalapana-bound flows, the leading edge of the June 27th flow stagnated when lava was tapped to supply pahoehoe breakouts at higher elevations near Pu`u `O`o. The relative contribution of lava temperature, crystallinity, eruption rate, and topography to this stagnation is now the subject of ongoing research. Whether additional lava will advance farther than the distance the June 27th flow has already reached remains to be seen.
      “Based on our recent analyses of the June 27th lava flow, current eruption conditions do not favor a Kalapana-like scenario in which broad sheet-flows inundate large swaths of land. However, we must keep in mind that eruption conditions — for instance, eruption rate, lava temperature, and vent location — can change unexpectedly. Because of this, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory continues to closely monitor Kilauea and will notify the public of any significant changes in the eruption.”
      See hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch.
      To comment on or like this story, go to facebook.com/kaucalendar.

KILAUEA MILITARY CAMP in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park celebrates Easter with a brunch and Easter Egg Hunt tomorrow. 
      Brunch from 7:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. at Crater Rim Café features beef pot roast with gravy, honey-glazed ham, omelet station, sweet bread French toast, ice cream sundae bar, beverages and more. Cost is $16.75 for adults and $8.50 for children six to 11 years old.
      Easter Egg Hunt for children 10 and under begins at 9 a.m. in the `Ohi`a Room. Registration begins at 7:30 a.m.
      KMC is open to authorized patrons and sponsored guests. Park entrance fees apply.


See kaucalendar.com/Directory2015.pdf and

See kaucalendar.com/KauCalendar_April2015.pdf.

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